Pathophysiology Module 4 Mcqs Pathophysiology Module 4 McqsPlease enter your email: 1. The main manifestation of right ventricular heart failure is: Lung edema Ascites Pneumosclerosis2. Factors involved in the development of gastric and duodenal ulcer all listed, except: Infection Excessive production of glucocorticoids Increased production of mucus Increased tone of sympathetic nerves3. Remodeling elements include all of the following, except: Hypertrophy Impaired Ca2+ mechanism Impaired function of K+/Na+ exchanger Realization of fetal gene programs Apoptosis of cardiomyocytes connective tissue growth4. Indicators of renal tubules dysfunction are all listed, except: Hyposthenuria Selective proteinuria Renal glucosuria Renal aminoaciduria5. The pathological condition which is characterized by polypnea is: Pneumonia Lung edema Hemorrhage Bronchospasm6. The complications of gallstones include all of the following, except: Adenocarcinoma of ampulla of Vater Acute intrahepatic cholangitis Acute pancreatitis Gangrenous cholecystitis7. Most common site of venous thrombosis? Veins of upper extremity Veins of lower extremity Dural sinus Portal vein8. Stages of acute renal failure include all of the following , except: Initial Oliguric Diuretic Postrenal Recovery9. Cholemia is characterized by the following symptoms, except: Bradycardia Itching Tachycardia Decrease of arterial pressure Frothy urine Loss of pain sensitivity10. Acholia is characterized by following disorders, Except: Periods of constipation and diarrhea Steatorrhea Dysbacteriosis Polyhypovitaminosis Flatulence Increased absorption of fat-soluble vitamins11. All are true for nephrotic syndrome, except: Edema Massive proteinuria Hypoalbuminemia Hyperlipidemia Hypertension12. The urgent compensatory mechanism of cardiac failure is: Dyspnea Hypertrophy of the myocardium Anemia13. Presence of urobilinogen is not sign of: Obstructive (mechanical) jaundice Hemolytic jaundice Parenchymal jaundice(appearance of urobilinogen in urine)14. Compensatory hyperfunction of myocardium during physical activity is not characterized by: Frequency of the load Saving of the ratio between muscle and interstitial components Saving of the ratio of muscle mass of the myocardium and its vascularization Saving of SERCA activity Emergency stage of compensatory hyperfunction15. Pathology which leads to disorder of ventilation of the obstructive type is: pneumonia lung edema bronchospasm atelectasis16. The mechanism underlying in a basis of diastolic dysfunction of the myocardium is: Impaired relaxation of the myocardium (of myocytes) Increased rigidity of the myocardium (of the interstitium)17. Long-term compensatory mechanism of cardiac failure is: Dyspnea Hypertrophy of the myocardium Anemia18. Cause of dark color of urine in obstructive jaundice is: Presence of conjugated bilirubin Presence of unconjugated bilirubin Presence of high level of stercobilinogen Presence of urobilinogen19. Stages of compensatory hyperfunction of the myocardium are: Emergency stage Hypotrophy Hypertrophy Progressive cardiosclerosis20. Hemorrhagic diathesis in liver pathology is caused by the following mechanisms, except: Reduction of the synthesis of prothrombin, proaccelerin in the liver Development of the syndrome of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC syndrome) Vasculopathia Thrombocytopenia21. The dynamic indicator of bronchial obstruction is: diffusion capacity residual volume maximal voluntary ventilation index Tiffeneau vital capacity of lungs22. Chronic gastritis «A» is characterized by all the listed signs, except: Damage of fundal part of the stomach Damage of pyloric part of the stomach Achilia Vitamin B12-deficiency anemia Autoimmune character23. The cause of obstructive jaundice is: Bile duct obstruction Destruction of red blood cells Damage of hepatocytes Viral infection24. All of the following are signs of the right ventricular failure, except: Enlargement of the liver Decreased venous pressure Cyanosis Edema25. All of the following are symptoms of cholemia, except: Bradycardia Itching Tachycardia Low arterial pressure Frothy urine26. Cause of dark color of urine in hemolytic jaundice is: Presence of conjugated bilirubin Presence of unconjugated bilirubin Presence of high level of stercobilinogen Presence of urobilinogen27. Types of cardiogenic shock are: True False Arrhythmogenic Reflex Reactive Areactive28. Manifestations of heart failure are all listed, except: dyspnea bradycardia myogenic dilatation edema tachycardia29. The main mechanisms of respiratory failure are: disorders of ventilation disorders of perfusion disorders of diffusion normal ventilation-perfusion ratio30. Condition which can present both as nephrotic syndrome and nephritic syndrome is: Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis Minimal change disease Acute proliferative glomerulonephritis Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis31. The causes promoting a decrease of glomerular filtration include all of the following, except: Decreased systemic blood pressure Decreased oncotic blood pressure Obstruction of urine outflow Increased renin release32. All of the following are factors of hepatic encephalopathy, except: Hyperammoniemia High level of indole, skatole in the blood Hypoglycemia Hyperglycemia33. Myocardial remodeling is characterized by: Structural and functional reorganization of myocytes Structural and functional reorganization of only the interstitial component Structural and functional reorganization of myocytes and interstitial components34. Stages of ischemic heart disease includes all of the following, except: Emergency stage Activation of the main pathogenic factors Inhibition of the main metabolic pathways Activation of lipid triad Necrobiotic cell death35. Cause of inspiratory dyspnea is: Pneumonia Asthma Lung edema Obturation of the larynx by a foreign body36. Classification of reparatory failure includes : hypoxemic type hyperxemic type hypocapnic type hypercapnic type37. Hyperchlorhydria and increased secretory function of the gastric glands are characterized by all these signs, except: Constipation Diarrhea Increased activity of pepsin Intestinal hypokinesia38. Anti-parietal cell antibodies are found in patients with? Pernicious anemia Gastric carcinoma Primary biliary cirrhosis Wegener granulomatosis39. Endogenous causes of chronic gastritis are all listed, except: Heart failure Diabetes mellitus Iron-deficiency anemia Cirrhosis of the liver Fever40. The first symptom of diabetic nephropathy is: Non-selective proteinuria Edema High arterial pressure Micro albuminuria41. An increased incidence of pancreatitis is associated with all of the following, except? Alcoholism Cholelithiasis Hypertension Chlorothiazide therapy42. Which of the following is not a function of liver? Production of albumin Detoxification of ammonia Production of vitamin K Metabolism of drugs43. Pathology which leads to disorder of ventilation of the restrictive type is: laryngospasm pneumosclerosis foreign body of larynx bronchospasm44. Stenosis of the upper respiratory tracts is characterized by: Tachypnea Bradypnea Polypnea45. Nephrotic syndrome is characterized by all the signs, except: Hypoalbuminemia The daily loss of protein more than 3 g/l Isostenuria Hyperlipidemia Edema46. Which is the first organ to be affected in left ventricular failure? Lungs Kidney Liver BrainThe correct answer is 1. Lungs.Left ventricular failure is a condition where the left ventricle of the heart is unable to pump blood effectively, leading to a buildup of fluid in the lungs and other organs. The left ventricle is responsible for pumping oxygenated blood from the lungs to the rest of the body. When it fails, blood backs up into the lungs, causing congestion and fluid accumulation in the alveoli (air sacs), which can lead to shortness of breath, coughing, and wheezing.As a result of the impaired function of the left ventricle, the kidneys, liver, and brain may also be affected, but the lungs are typically the first organ to be impacted by left ventricular failure.47. All of the following are risk factors of ischemic heart, except: Increased level of lipoproteins of high density Diabetes mellitus Arterial hypertension Heredity Smoking48. The main manifestation of acute left ventricular heart failure is: ascites lung edema tachycardia49. The basis of long-term adaptation during compensatory hyperfunction of the myocardium is: Development of the capillary network of myocardium Accumulation of glycogen in the myocardium Systemic structural trace (in cardiomyocytes) in the form of increased number of mitochondria, the area of SPR and structural proteins50. Most common sites of arterial embolization? Brain Kidney Lower extremities Mesentery51. Reperfusion syndrome in myocardial ischemia is associated with: Activation of lipid peroxidation Inhibition of lipid peroxidation Increased calcium level in cardiomyocytes Decreased calcium level in cardiomyocytes52. The most serious electrolyte complication of oliguric stage renal failure is: Hypochloremia (low chloride level) Hypernatriemia (high sodium level) Hyperkalemia (high potassium level)53. The cause of concentric type of myocardial remodeling is: Ischemic heart disease Arterial hypertension Cardiosclerosis Valvular regurgitation54. The type of respiratory disorder in pneumonia is: tachypnea bradypnea polypnea55. Chronic renal failure with severe decrease of glomerular filtration rate (less than 25 ml/min) leads to development of: Hypophosphatemia and hypocalcemia Hyperphosphatemia and hypercalcemia Hyperphosphatemia and hypocalcemia56. The main stimulus of growth of the connective tissue during remodeling is: Hemodynamic stress Disorder of neuroendocrine regulation57. Stages of chronic renal failure include: Latent Oliguric Compensation Decompensation Terminal Recovery58. Liver failure includes the following syndromes, except: Portal hypertension Hemorragic diathesis Jaundice Polycythemia Hepatic encephalopathy59. Tubular proteinuria is observed in all these forms of pathology, except: Interstitial nephritis Renal disease with reduced potassium-K+penic kidney Acute tubular necrosis Congenital tubulopathy (Fanconi syndrome) Nephrotic syndrome60. Most common cause of mitral valve disease is: Myxoma Rheumatic fever Tuberculosis Syphilis61. Types of intestinal obstruction include all of the following, except: Dynamic Obstructive Thromboembolic Strangulation Hypovolemic62. Intestinal toxicosis is characterized by all signs, except: Intracellular metabolic acidosis Extracellular metabolic alkalosis Increased volume of circulating blood Dehydration Hypothermia63. The main factors, contributing to the transition stage of stable hyperfunction into stage of dis adaptation, include all listed, except: Increased energy consumption by the myocardium. Decrease of ratio: surface area of the surface of cardiomyocytes/volume. Reduction of the density of the capillary network. Increase of the density of the capillary network. Disorder of the nuclear/cytoplasmic relations in cardiomyocytes. Reduction of the density of adrenergic receptors. Growth of the interstitium.64. The development of gastric ulcer is associated with all these factors, except: Acid-peptic factor Gastroduodenal reflux Insufficient blood supply to the mucosa Drugs (aspirin) Increased production of somatostatin65. Signs of hemolytic jaundice are: Direct hyperbilirubinemia, increased transaminases, normal levels of alkaline phosphatase, stercobilinogen). Hyperbilirubinemia (direct and indirect), reduced stercobilinogen (may be absent), normal transferases, alkaline phosphatase sharply increased. Direct hyperbilirubinemia, increased stercobilinogen, the presence of urobilinogen). Indirect hyperbilirubinemia, urobilinogen (possible), increasing the level of stercobilinogen, normal alkaline phosphatase, normal transaminases. Direct and indirect hyperbilirubinemia, increased alkaline phosphatase, urobilinogens, stercobilinogen may be absent, increased levels of transaminases.66. White blood cast is seen in? Glomerulonephritis Pyelonephritis Chronic renal failure Acute renal failure67. Eccentric hypertrophy of heart is caused by: Mitral stenosis Mitral regurgitation Hypertension68. Concentric hypertrophy of heart is caused by: Mitral stenosis Mitral regurgitation Ischemic heart disease Hypervolemia69. All of the following are initial factors of myocardial remodeling, except: Disorders of coagulation Hemodynamic stress Activation of neuroendocrine regulation Action of angiotensin II70. All of following are symptoms of portal hypertension, except: Jaundice Ascites Varicose veins of the esophagus Splenomegaly Hemorrhoidal bleeding71. Concentric type of myocardial remodeling is a result of: Ischemic heart disease Arterial hypertension Post-infarction cardiosclerosis Valvular regurgitation72. Duodenal ulcer is most commonly caused by: NSAID therapy H.pylori Stress Unhealthy diet73. Red blood cast is seen in? Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis Renal vein thrombosis Bladder schistomiasis Minimal change disease74. Mechanisms of ascites in liver cirrhosis include all of the following, except: Secondary hyperaldosteronism Hypoalbuminemia Hyperalbuminemia Portal hypertension75. All of the following are syndromes of liver failure, except: Portal hypertension Hemorragic diathesis Jaundice Polycythemia encephalopathy76. Salt-losing nephropathy is: Post-streptococcal GN Interstitial nephritis Lupus nephritis Amyloidosis77. Chronic liver failure is characterized by the following changes in the protein composition of the blood, except: Hyperproteinemia Hypoproteinemia Dysproteinemia Decrease of the albumin-globulin coefficient78. Indicators which characterize disorders of glomerular filtration are all listed, Except: Azotemia Reduction of creatinine clearance Non-selective proteinuria Oliguria Leukocyturia79. Emphysema is associated with deficiency of which of the following: alpha1 anti-trypsin Trypsin Trypsinogen Bradykinin80. A patient with nephritic syndrome will not have: Hematuria Leukocyturia Hypertension Edema81. The main stimulus of hypertrophic response of cardiomyocytes during remodeling is: Hemodynamic stress Disorder of neuroendocrine regulation82. All of the following are causes of eccentric type of myocardial remodeling, except: Ischemic heart disease Cardiosclerosis Valvular stenosis Valvular regurgitation Loading …What is the color of the snow?