1. Characteristics of the main groups of toxic technical fluids:

Toxic technical fluids can be classified into various groups based on their chemical composition and properties. Some of the main groups include:
a. Organic solvents: These are liquids commonly used in industries for various purposes, such as cleaning, degreasing, and as components in chemical processes. They can be highly flammable and harmful if inhaled or absorbed through the skin.

b. Heavy metals and their compounds: Substances like lead, mercury, and cadmium can be toxic and pose health risks, particularly in industrial settings where exposure is common.
c. Chlorinated hydrocarbons: Compounds containing chlorine and carbon, such as chloroform and trichloroethylene, can be toxic and are used in manufacturing and cleaning processes.
d. Aromatic hydrocarbons: Substances like benzene and toluene are commonly used in the petrochemical industry and can have adverse health effects if inhaled or absorbed.

2. Physicochemical and toxic properties of dichloroethane:

Dichloroethane is a chemical compound with the formula C2H4Cl2. It exists in two isomeric forms, 1,2-dichloroethane and 1,1-dichloroethane. Both forms are flammable and have a sweet, chloroform-like odor. They are used as solvents, in the production of vinyl chloride, and for degreasing metals. Inhalation or skin contact with dichloroethane can lead to symptoms like dizziness, headache, nausea, and in severe cases, it can cause damage to the central nervous system.
Clinic features of poisoning with trichloroethylene:
Trichloroethylene is a chlorinated hydrocarbon used as a solvent and degreaser. Poisoning with trichloroethylene can result in symptoms such as dizziness, headache, nausea, and skin irritation. Severe exposure may lead to respiratory depression, cardiac arrhythmias, and liver and kidney damage.

3. Application of chlorinated hydrocarbons in industry:

Chlorinated hydrocarbons, including compounds like chloroform and trichloroethylene, are used in industry for various purposes, such as:
– Solvents for cleaning and degreasing.
– Intermediate chemicals in the production of other compounds.
– Refrigerants.
– Extraction agents in chemical processes.
Assisting with dichloroethane poisoning and prevention of poisoning:
In case of dichloroethane poisoning, immediate medical attention is crucial. Treatment may involve supportive care, such as respiratory support and the administration of antidotes if available. Prevention of poisoning involves using appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE), ensuring adequate ventilation in workplaces, and implementing safe handling procedures.

4. Physicochemical and toxic properties of methyl alcohol:

Methyl alcohol, also known as methanol, is a colorless, flammable liquid with a slightly sweet odor. It is highly toxic when ingested, inhaled, or absorbed through the skin. Methanol poisoning can result in clinical stages ranging from mild symptoms like headache and dizziness to severe effects such as metabolic acidosis, visual disturbances, and organ failure.
The degree of severity of methanol poisoning depends on the amount ingested and the timeliness of treatment.

Clinic poisoning due to methanol usually involves gastrointestinal symptoms, central nervous system depression, and visual disturbances.

5. Medical care and prevention of methyl alcohol poisoning:

Medical care for methyl alcohol poisoning includes administering an antidote called fomepizole or ethanol, providing supportive care for metabolic acidosis and organ damage, and hemodialysis to remove methanol from the bloodstream. Prevention involves ensuring that methanol-containing products are stored and used safely, and raising awareness about the dangers of consuming homemade alcoholic beverages containing methanol.
6. Physicochemical and toxic properties of ethylene glycol (EG):
Ethylene glycol is a colorless, odorless liquid used in various industries, including automotive as an antifreeze and coolant. It is toxic when ingested and can lead to kidney damage. Ethylene glycol has a sweet taste, making it a danger for accidental ingestion.
Periods of intoxication in ethylene glycol poisoning:
Ethylene glycol poisoning typically has three periods: the initial period with symptoms like drunkenness, the latent period without symptoms, and the terminal period with severe metabolic acidosis and kidney damage.

7. Clinical stages of intoxication and degree of severity in EG poisoning:

Clinical stages of EG poisoning include symptoms like headache, dizziness, and in severe cases, metabolic acidosis, seizures, and kidney failure. The degree of severity depends on the amount ingested and the promptness of medical treatment.

8. Medical care and prevention of EG poisoning:

Treatment of EG poisoning involves administering an antidote called fomepizole or ethanol, managing metabolic acidosis, and providing hemodialysis if needed. Prevention includes storing EG-containing products safely, using childproof containers, and raising awareness about the risks of accidental ingestion.

9. Physicochemical and toxic properties of tetraethyl lead:

Tetraethyl lead is an organometallic compound containing lead, and it was historically used as an anti-knock additive in gasoline. It is highly toxic due to the potential for lead exposure.
Application in industry:
Tetraethyl lead was used in the automotive industry as an anti-knock agent to improve engine performance and reduce engine knocking in gasoline engines. However, its use has been largely phased out due to environmental and health concerns.
Acute and chronic intoxication:
Acute intoxication with tetraethyl lead can result from exposure to high concentrations, leading to symptoms like headache, nausea, and even lead poisoning. Chronic intoxication can occur in workers regularly exposed to low levels of lead over time.
Prevention of poisoning: Prevention of tetraethyl lead poisoning involves using lead-free gasoline and following strict safety procedures when handling or disposing of lead-containing materials. Regular health screenings for workers exposed to lead are also crucial to detect early signs of lead poisoning.


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